Not far from Seville, about an hour's drive away, is a cozy town. Another example of Spanish color is Cordoba. Attractions include a mixture of several cultures - Arabic, Christian and Roman. The population and territory are in third place. Seville and Malaga are much more. A pleasant ancient town is located by the Guadalquivir River, in the central part of Andalusia.
Some historical information
It was founded by the Phoenicians who named it Kartuba. In 206 BC, it was captured by the Romans, for them Cordoba served as an important port on the river. From here, merchants sent their goods. The Moors captured in 711 and by the tenth century the population reached 400,000. About 60,000 houses were built for the nobility, baths, hotels, shops for trade and craft workshops.
The craftsmen of Cordoba were famous for their ability to make exquisite ceramic, bone and gold items. Almost all the inhabitants were literate, even women, which was rare for that time. There were 70 libraries, 800 schools - Cordoba was nicknamed the abode of science, in one of the large libraries of Hackem II, then 600 thousand volumes of various literature were stored.
In 1236, Ferdinand’s army captured the city, then Muslims were expelled from this territory. The economic crisis and decline began, as scientists, traders and craftsmen left. The mosque was rebuilt into a church, marble Roman columns of marble were destroyed, around 175. By the beginning of the 18th century, the number had sharply decreased and reached 20,000. Starvation, epidemics and natural disasters led the once successful town into decline and impoverishment. Already at the beginning of the 20th century. a marked increase in the economy and population has begun.
The historical heritage, Cordoba ensembles, have retained their authenticity and are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here is a stunning mix of different cultures such as: Moorish, Ancient Roman, Jewish, Christian and Berber.
- Mesquita (Mezquita). This mosque is known worldwide, is a symbol of the city. It was founded in 785 and was the largest religious building for Muslims. Its area is about 23 thousand 400 square meters. meters. In the time of the Reconquista, it was captured by the Spaniards, but the decision was made not to destroy such a magnificent and beautiful structure, but to turn it into a Catholic church. Thus appeared Catedral de Cordoba - Cathedral. A grand building is located, near the promenade, in the city center, surrounded by old Jewish and Moorish quarters. The uniqueness of the cathedral is that it is both a mosque and the main temple of the diocese, that is, the shrine of two different cultures. Archaeologists have found that the mosque-cathedral was erected on the remains of the Visigoth temple. This confirms the preserved mosaic patterns. It was destroyed in order to build a Muslim shrine at a time when this territory was considered Muslim Spain or the Cordoba caliphate. Now they are holding political, social, religious and cultural demonstrations.
- Roman bridge. Calahorra Tower.
- Another famous monument is Puente Romano , it was built under Caesar. The length is approximately 230 meters, consists of 16 arches, connects the areas of the Holy Field of the Martyrs and the Cathedral. And at the base there is a massive tower of 1369, the oldest and served as a defense, with serrated edges Torre de la Calahorra. From the other end of the bridge you can see the ancient gate of Puerta del Puente in ancient times served as an entrance. It was built by the Romans, under the emperor Octavian Augustus, to transport merchandise. Crossing the river was possible only in this way, later on the basis of it the Arabs built a crossing.
Now only the foundation remains of the original form, after the arrival of Christians in these parts, it was reconstructed. Served as the only way to move to the other side for about 20 centuries. In the 20th century the bridge of St. Raphael, the patron saint of Cordoba, appeared and since 2004 traffic has been prohibited here, now it is only a pedestrian zone.
- Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos - Alcazar of the Christian Kings. Built on the site of an Arab fortress at Alfonso XI, and earlier it was a Roman temple. It is considered the second largest residence of the monarchs, after the Seville. The palace was gradually equipped with different rulers and now you can see in the impregnable walls beautiful marvelous gardens, fountains and Arab baths. Here Christopher Columbus was received, back in 1492 the Inquisition Tribunal worked. The French barracks settled in 1810. In 1931 the castle was recognized as a historical monument and restoration began. Since 1994, it is included in the UNESCO list. Its area is about 4100 m2, and the gardens occupy 55 thousand square meters.
- Towers-la torre "Respect" is the main one and there is a hall for receptions. A mixture of French and Gothic style in architecture, with carved ornaments.
- La torre "Lviv", "Inquisition" and "Dove".
- Alley of the Kings.
- Mosaic Hall.
- Royal Baths.
Museum of Fine Arts. Go to the Plaza del Porto, here is a modest, baroque-style building. Inside there is a garden and a fountain. Founded in 1862, it presents collections of masterpieces of art, namely the works of artists of the Renaissance and Baroque period, the paintings and prints by Francisco Goya, paintings by Ribera, Murillo, the sculptor Mateo, as well as works by contemporary masters of sculpture and painting in Spain.
Museo Taurino Municipal. Fans of the national form of entertainment and sports - bullfighting, should definitely visit the bullfighting museum. He talks about the history and life of the most famous matadors. For the Famous Torero Manolete, a separate part of the exposition is highlighted. He showed incredibly colorful performances and was killed by a bull at a young age. Costumes, embroidered cloaks, torero items, photos, paintings and sculptures that are dedicated and related to bullfighting are also presented here.
Synagogue. The only surviving in the south of the country. National Monument since 1885.
A museum of archeology that stores the treasures of the Visigoth era. For a comfortable trip and movement, the best solution would be to rent a car. Give preference to a luxury car, they are always in perfect condition, with an increased safety indicator. Technical specifications are an order of magnitude higher than models with a class lower. You can see more beauties on a map of Spain and not depend on public transport. Change locations according to your desire, stay in the places you like and enjoy spending holidays with pleasure.